Work teams of all types are being empowered to perform tasks that previously were employeesâ€™ responsibility. As organizations move toward more highly empowered work teams, the organizations that invest resources to train teams can increase both team and organizational effectiveness. Management often rushes to form work teams without considering how the behaviors needed for effective team work differ from those needed for effective individual contributions. Team members may receive little or no training to ensure that they can perform the required tasks and achieve the goals set.Communication Issues in Situations 1. Not informing other departments of status and updated schedules. Improving communication in organization involves more accurate encoding, transmitting, decoding and updating at the interdepartmental level. People can overcome barriers to effective communication. They must first be aware that barriers exist and can cause serious organizational problems. Then they must be willing to invest the effort and time necessary to overcome the barriers. When departments do not communicate or update the status of information, then, there will be confusion in the process.To avoid this, employees must be able to follow up to determine whether important messages have been understood. Feedback doesnâ€™t have to be verbal; in fact, actions often speak louder than words. The sales manager who describes desired changes in the monthly sales planning report receives feedback from the report itself when it is turned in. If it contains the proper changes, the manager knows the message was received and understood. Managers who tell everyone to see the big picture often create a serious communication overload.Rather than trying to keep everyone involved, top-level management need follow the â€œneed-to-knowâ€ principle transmitting communication and updating people in other areas of the organization that need the necessary information. Sometimes it is useful to regulate the flow of information and procedures that need to be brought to the attention of the people in the other departments. As long as performance falls within the acceptable range, the regular procedures aware followed. Misunderstandings and confusion can be reduced when adequate and timely feedback of information is done.Information must always be updated. Feedback mechanisms and reporting systems need to be established so managers know whether their messages have been understood, accepted and followed. Sometimes, a useful technique here is to manage the timing of messages so they are received in an orderly manner. This principle is similar to the procedure many executives use in responding to their in-basket. Incoming mail is sorted into piles of related topics. A similar procedure can be used, to some extent, with verbal communication where specific time periods are scheduled for discussing a specific topic.â€œKnowledge work is a process requiring knowledge from both internal and external sources to produce a product that is distinguished by its specific information contentâ€ (Kappes and Thomas). 2. Blaming between people of different races This is a big communication barrier that needs immediate remedy. When one has a grudge against someone, he tends to make that someone responsible for everything he finds wrong. When a person in one department blames someone, his desire to judge and punish is often what is at work.Someone blames another hen he is angry because the action made things turn out differently than he wishedâ€”if not through his words, then through his manner and tone of voice. One can put all the responsibility for what happened to him, in a way that implies what he did was â€œwrongâ€ or â€œbad. â€ Moreover, blame breeds resentment. â€œitâ€™s your fault! â€ is a red-flag phrase. It is to a person what a matadorâ€™s cape is to a bull. The hooker in blame is that smidgen of truth in what one said or implied. One can seldom say, â€œThatâ€™s just what you feel-it has nothing to do with me.â€ When a personâ€™s blamer goes to work, it is very canny. It knows exactly where to go zap, where to pick out that nasty kernel of truth. A put-down artist is an expert at zeroing in on where you feel bad about oneself and making him feel even smaller there. Two messages get mixed up in blame: one partyâ€™s statement of how he feels (Iâ€™m angry and disappointedâ€) and oneâ€™s evaluation of the other party (â€œScum like you shouldnâ€™t be aloud to work in this company. â€). The feelings about the situation are often hidden in the â€œyou-are-badâ€ message, instead of being said straight out.One-way blaming in the organization is overcome is help open up communication between two blaming departments. Members of these departments must also be reminded that they need to take responsibility for their part in what happened. 3. Lack of standardization among terms used with different departments. This signifies uniform and consistent procedures or knowledge of terms that employees are to follow in doing their jobs. They must be aware of not only the terms used in the different departments but also the written procedures, job descriptions, instructions, rules and regulations to standardize the routine aspects of jobs.Standards among terms used with different departments allow people to reinforce values important to the organizationâ€™s success. This approach may seem mechanical, but if terms were not standardized, many organizations couldnâ€™t achieve their goals and will have confusion of meanings in the process. Terms serve to bind as well as to separate departments. Terms sometimes block more than they reveal. They can prevent a true look. One is unlikely ever to know the whole truth of something. Someone else may see or touch a thing in a different way than one does, and know another side of it.An idea or statement, or concept is true to the degree that it helps one accurately experience the thing or event it represents. Some of the terms team members use are: free riding which means that a member does not contribute fully to team performance but still sharing in team rewards despite making less effort than the others; groupthink which is an agreement-at-any-cost mentality that results in ineffective work team decision-making and may lead to poor solutions; productive controversy which occurs when team members value different points of view and seek to draw them out to facilitate creative problem-solving (Hellriegel et al 1996).Dryer and Ericksen (March 2004) propose that human behaviors in high-reliability organizations can affect organizational performance. They examine several Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) strategies that engender and reinforce certain human behaviors that in turn can result to reliability in organizations that â€œoperate under trying conditions, i. e. , those that manage complex and interdependent systems subject to substantial external volatility. â€ They believe reliability in organizations (like mining firms) is a â€œcritical process-basedâ€ measure of organizational performance (Dryer and Ericksen, 2004).Communication Strategy Team discussions are important. This is crucial especially in discussing feelings for these reflect the emotional climate of a tram. The four feelings most likely to influence work team effectiveness and productivity are the feelings of trust, openness, freedom and interdependence. The more these feelings are present, the more likely the work team will be effective and the members will experience satisfaction. These feelings probably are present in a formal or informal group to which one belongs if they agree with the following statements:â€“ Trust- Members have confidence in each other. â€“ Openness â€“ Members are really interested in what others have to say. â€“ Freedom â€“ Members do what they do out of a sense of responsibility to the group, not because of a lot of pressure from others. â€“ Interdependence â€“ Members coordinate and work together to achieve common goals. Indeed, in organizations, departments can easily get into trouble when they forget that they are sometimes dealing with abstractions, and then act as though they were concrete things and events. REFERENCES Dryer, L. and Ericksen, J. (March 2004).Towards a Strategic Human Resource Management Model of High Reliability Organization Performance: A Working Paper. Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, Cornell School of Labor and Industrial Relations. Retrieved Oct. 30, 2006 at: http://www. ilr. cornell. edu/depts/cahrs/downloads/pdfs/workingpapers/WP04-02. pdf Hellriegel, D. Jackson S. and Slocum, J. (1996). Management. USA: International Thomson Publishing. Kappes, S. and Thomas, B. A Model for Knowledge Worker Information Support. Knowledge Worker Information Management. Retrieved Oct. 30, 2006 at: http://www. cecer. army. mil/kws/kap_supp. htm Building Effective Teams Building a global-based team is not as easy as building a new internal team in the company. There are many things to be considered. Creating a single team composed of different nationalities with different cultures should be done with thorough research and full attention. Several factors need to be looked at and taken into consideration to build an effective global team working together despite the geographical barriers. A good mix of international team members can only be obtained if the right criteria in the selection are correctly set.The rest of this paper discusses some of the criteria that would best help in the purpose of building a global-based team working effectively towards a common goal. Selecting Global Sales Team Members As an HR Manager tasked to come up with an effective global sales team, there should be some criteria that would better facilitate the selection of team members. Some of these criteria can be the following: â€¢ Each member should be open to the fact of working with other members from other countries. â€¢ The member should have a proven record of being responsible and reliable in their jobs especially when it comes to important tasks or assignments.â€¢ Excellent communication skills, especially when it comes to dealing with business projects and endeavors, need to be exhibited by the global team member. â€¢ The member should have a sense of independence and organization. Working in a global-based team means a possibility of working in a virtual environment where members are not directly supervised by a manager. The member should be able to work on his own at times and organized enough to be able to manage his own time in order to accomplish all the deliverables on time.As mentioned, if a global sales team is desired, there is a possibility that the members will work together in a virtual environment. With this in mind, I would probably decide on building a team composed of highly experienced professionals with proven and excellent track record. These professionals should also exhibit the criteria and characteristics mentioned above. All of those things are necessary in building an effective global sales team. As the manager who is in charge of building the team, I would ensure that every member of the team is aware of the teamâ€™s nature.They should be briefed when it comes to differing time zones, languages, culture and work ethics of each member since they belong to different nationalities. The members of this global team should fully and clearly understand the objectives and goals of the global team. Since the members do not work in just a single location, they should exhaust all possible means of communication. With todayâ€™s technology, working in a virtual team, with members located in all parts of the globe, is now easy because of all the advanced means of communications easily available to anyone just like email, mobile phones and internet telephony.An effective communication is crucial in the success of any global-based team. For a global team to build trust and integrate well with each other, Mitchell (2000, p. 162) said that â€œteam members [should] realize that each culture has much to offer. The team [should] take the best from each culture and mold them into a team personality that reflects the diverse nature of team members. â€ References Mitchell, C. (2000). A Short Course in International Business Culture. Novato, CA: World Trade Press.
To what extent can global geopolitics in the period since 1989 be described as a 'clash of civilisations' - Essay Example
Between the 1940s and 1989, global citizens were held hostage to recurring conflict between the worldâ€™s two largest superpowers which never reached a full militaristic situation as a result of both superpowerâ€™s capability to impose mass destruction against the other (Gaddis 56). However, since 1989, many states have developed more technological capacity and economic strength, making powers other than the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc more influential in geopolitics. Since 1989, more geopolitical power spread throughout emerging militaristic and economically-sound states has changed the dynamics of political relationships throughout the world. This essay explores the Gulf War, theory regarding global capitalism and U.S. unipolarity to describe how geopolitics, today, has led to a clash of civilisations.
Between 1980 and 1988, Iraq had been engaged in a lengthy war against Iran, sparked by unsettled border disputes between the two nations. Iraq, a once-wealthy and prosperous nation, was witnessing its economic strength diminishing as a result of continuously funding a costly military effort against its rival. During this war, Saudi Arabia, one of the worldâ€™s largest oil producers, began to fear that if Iran won this conflict, it would create an Iran hegemony that would ultimately threaten national security of Saudi Arabia and its oil-related revenues. Saudi Arabia had loans $26 billion USD to Iraq as a dual effort to ensure that the Shia in Iran would not gain substantial political power. Kuwait, another oil rich nation, had also loaned Iraq $14 billion USD to assist Iraq in its military objectives against Iran.
By 1990, Kuwait refused to simply forgive this $14 billion dollar loan even though Iraq was convinced that the eight year-long war had achieved an oppression of Iranâ€™s growing strength (Watson, George, Tsouras and Cyr 61). The Saudis, additionally, placed considerable pressure on Iraq to begin loan
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